Wettability of ZnO: A comparison of reactively sputtered; thermally oxidized and vacuum annealed coatings

Barshilia, Harish C and Selvakumar, N and Pillai, Nisha and Devi L, Mayura and Rajam, KS (2011) Wettability of ZnO: A comparison of reactively sputtered; thermally oxidized and vacuum annealed coatings. Applied Surface Science, 257 (9). pp. 4410-4417. ISSN 0169-4332

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    Abstract

    We have studied the wettability of sputter deposited ZnO, thermally oxidized Zn-ZnO and vacuum annealed ZnO coatings. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed the formation of hexagonal-wurtzite structure of ZnO, which was further confirmed by micro-Raman spectroscopy data. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data indicated that the sputter deposited ZnO coatings were more stoichiometric than thermally oxidized Zn-ZnO and vacuum annealed ZnO coatings. The wettability measurements indicated that water contact angles of 158.5 degrees and 155.2 degrees with sliding angles of 2 degrees and 4 degrees were achieved for thermally oxidized Zn-ZnO and vacuum annealed ZnO coatings, respectively. The superhydrophobicity observed in thermally oxidized Zn-ZnO and vacuum annealed coatings is attributed to the nanorod cluster like morphology along with the presence of high fraction of micron scale air pockets. The water droplet on such surfaces is mostly in contact with air pockets rather than solid surface, leading to high contact angle. Whereas, the sputter deposited ZnO coatings exhibited a maximum water contact angle of 110.3 degrees. This is because the sputter deposited ZnO coatings exhibited a densely packed nanograin-like microstructure without any air pockets. The work of adhesion of water was very low for thermally oxidized Zn-ZnO (5.06 mJ/m(2)) and vacuum annealed ZnO coatings (6.71 mJ/m(2)) when compared to reactively sputtered ZnO coatings (90.41 mJ/m(2)). The apparent surface free energy (SFE) for these coatings was calculated using Neumann method and the SFE values for sputter deposited ZnO, thermally oxidized Zn-ZnO and vacuum annealed ZnO coatings were 32.95, 23.21 and 18.78 mJ/m(2), respectively.

    Item Type: Journal Article
    Uncontrolled Keywords: THIN-FILMS; SURFACES; NANOSTRUCTURES; FABRICATION; DEPOSITION
    Subjects: CHEMISTRY AND MATERIALS > Chemistry and Materials (General)
    Division/Department: Surface Engineering Division, Surface Engineering Division, Other, Other, Surface Engineering Division
    Depositing User: Ms Indrani V
    Date Deposited: 14 Jun 2011 16:35
    Last Modified: 11 Aug 2011 15:53
    URI: http://nal-ir.nal.res.in/id/eprint/9228

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